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An effective team needs people not only with the technical skills necessary to perform the work, but also problem-solving skills, interpersonal skills, and:
ability to control a group of people.
a reduced send of self-efficacy.
Goal contagion is a form of norm setting in which people adopt a goal held by others. Goal contagion is more likely in what circumstance?
A person feels threatened by other members of the team to adopt a certain goal.
Adopted when a team member wishes to differentiate themselves from the group
When the team desires or admires a goal held by a competing team
Between people in the same work group or team
Execution is the ability of teams to communicate effectively and combine their efforts. All of the following can enhance team execution EXCEPT:
setting clear performance standards.
practice and rehearsal.
training team members together.
increasing the size of the team.
A number of factors must be in place for a team to perform well. All of the following are considered essential for team effectiveness EXCEPT the:
ability to coordinate effort and communicate well with others.
motivation to accomplish the goals of the team.
knowledge and skill regarding the team task.
ability to identify the different personality styles of team members.
In a team, a person’s efforts are less identifiable than when that person works independently. Because the person’s efforts are less identifiable, in extreme circumstances this can lead to:
choking under pressure – a person’s performance declines despite incentives for optimal performance.
relational loss – or when an employee perceives that support is less available as team size increases.
deindividuation – a psychological state in which a person does not feel individual responsibility.
a positive illusion bias – or unwarranted beliefs in one’s own superiority.
When the least capable member of a team feels particularly indispensable for group success, the entire group works harder to achieve their goals. This effect is best termed:
positive illusion bias.
social striving effect.
Regarding team performance, leaders can more easily control ________ than ________.
team Integration; team separation
the demands of a task; the process of accomplishing a task
team cohesion; resources
performance threats; synergies
A team norm is best described as:
the personality of the team.
a generally agreed upon set of rules that guides the behavior of team members.
the normal number of people to be on a given team.
a goal held by the group that is adopted by a newcomer.
In regards to expertise, critical skills for team members include all of the following EXCEPT:
a strong ability to communicate effectively.
a large network of influential company contacts.
collaborative problem solving.
The organizational context, team design, and team culture are three important aspects that affect the ultimate performance of a team. Which of these three aspects does a leader have the most control over?
The organizational context
All three about equally
When in the psychologic state of “Flow,” which of the following is the most TRUE?
A person is extremely relaxed, and very comfortable with the task at hand.
A person is intimidated by the task.
A person is keenly aware of the time they are spending on the task at hand.
For the individual, the process of engaging in the task is its own reinforcement.
The belief that a group has in themselves, or their group potency, is a significant predictor of actual performance. This “thinking we can” contributes to group performance more than the:
diversity of team members.
individual, positive illusion biases.
pure cognitive abilities of the team.
The positive illusion bias refers to:
people who work harder for the team hoping to improve the overall team’s reputation within the larger organizational context.
a team member who has positive news to share about the group’s task in hopes that it will spur morale and increase productivity.
managers who convey a positive attitude in order to positively influence their team’s group mood.
people who believe themselves to be superior and more talented than others on their team.
Which of the following situations demonstrates the best example of social facilitation?
Sonya is an up and coming dancer, and her teacher puts quite a bit of pressure on her to perform perfectly. In her dance recital, despite weeks of rehearsals, Sonya’s mind goes blank, and she can’t remember her routine.
Mary, who is a new member of the ballet class, is asked to demonstrate a step sequence for the senior members of the company. Mary is concerned that her technique will not be up to par with the rest of the team.
Julia is a strong dancer, and when asked to demonstrate her solo to a room full of classmates, her performance is more energetic, and her leaps are higher.
John is an excellent lead dancer, and when learning a new routine, loses track of time because he is so engaged in his task.
As team size gets larger and larger, team members perceive that there is less support available, and freeriding increases. This experience can lead to:
greater cohesion between team members.
both diminished motivation and lower performance.
The team performance equation attempts to predict the actual productivity of a team. It states that the AP (actual productivity) of a team equals:
the potential productivity of a team, plus team synergies, minus team threats.
the potential productivity of a team, plus task design, plus team culture.
the potential productivity of a team, plus team culture, minus free-riding.
cohesion, plus learning, plus integration.
Which of the following performance criteria is the most important one to use when evaluating the success of a team?
Several factors can threaten the ability of teams to accurately share and use knowledge. One of these problems, the uneven communication problem, is best illustrated in which of the following situational examples?
In a brainstorming meeting with 6 team members, 3 of the team members did 70% of the talking, while the other team members barely had a chance to voice their opinions and concerns.
Julia is helping Kari bake a cake for a client, so she prepares the kitchen by getting out Kari’s preferred tools and rescheduling a vendor appointment because Julia knows Kari hates to be interrupted when she is working.
Fern and Sybil have the same manager, but Fern sits next to her manager and so has many opportunities to discuss project progress, but Sybil sits in an office on a different floor and only gets to see her manager during staff meetings.
Pete keeps records on customer orders, and Ross keeps records on product recalls, but neither are aware of this.
Regarding information dependence issues, which of the following examples best illustrates the concept of a hidden profile?
Carl, David, and Jean are considering six pieces of information regarding the decision about the location of their company retreat. Even though each piece of decision criteria seems to be of equal importance, Dan and Carl have been overemphasizing the importance of access to nature trails. Mary feels pressured to overweigh this individual decision point at the expense of other criteria.
Ted, Paul, and Laurel together have done their research about the choices for the location of the company retreat. Each person knows the same information, both good and bad, as the other group members.
Kelly, Bob and Dan have separately researched options for next year’s company retreat. Each team member has unique information regarding the choices for the event location. No one location seems to be the best choice for the retreat.
Mary, Talia, and Sue have researched where the company retreat should be held this year, and they seem to agree on the location. However, Talia has found out some information that she hasn’t yet shared with the group; a motorcycle convention at the same time and location as their retreat, which, if shared, will probably contradict the team’s common choice.
________ coordination is the synchronization of members’ actions based on assumptions about what others on the team are likely to do and members’ attempts to coordinate work in this way begins prior to actual team interaction.
A study at an R&D organization, where teams worked together for more than five years, revealed what?
The performance of the groups remained steady over time, but declined sharply after five years of working together.
The performance of the groups increased over time, but only up to a point; after five years of working together, performance declined steeply.
The performance of the groups increased over time in a steady, consistent fashion.
The performance of the groups decreased steadily over time.
In a longitudinal study of teams that worked together for over 5 years, a series of behavioral changes took place in these aging groups. Each of the following occurred EXCEPT:
What is one of the best ways for improving the quality of pooled information collected during a collaborative problem-solving session?
The group shares ideas in the moment they occur to them.
Have teams pair off, and create collaborative observations to be shared later with the group as a whole.
Allow individual group members the time to internally recall and record details or observations to be shared later with the group.
Allow the group to have an unstructured method for gathering and sharing information.
Each of the following are effective interventions to defeat the common information effect, EXCEPT:
build trust and familiarity among team members.
approach the task as a problem to be solved, rather than a judgment to be made.
leaders asking questions and repeat unshared/shared information.
A team mental model is a common understanding, shared by members of a team, about how something works. Mental models most efficiently develop through the process of:
watching others outside of the group figure out how something works.
team members sharing information regarding their specialized knowledge, skills, and abilities.
hiring an outside consultant to teach the team how something works.
The common information effect is best described as the tendency for groups to:
want to delay making important decisions, even when they have all of the relevant information necessary to make a decision.
consider and implement solutions that other groups have used rather than experiment with novel solutions.
spend too long attempting to reach consensus on a problem.
discuss and consider information that they all have in common more than unique information (that only one person in the group may be aware of).
Transactive Memory Systems are the ways in which teams encode, store, process and retrieve critical information necessary for doing their work. Of the following, select the best situational example of a Transactive Memory System.
Molly keeps track of all her own work files by an elaborate cross-referencing system.
Julia has considerable experience in product engineering and Nathan has a background in product parts sourcing, and they are able to remember more about a new client because each knows the other’s skill set.
Karen keeps records on customer satisfaction reviews, and Kari keeps records on product reliability, but neither are aware of this.
Tom secretly stashes away all of the new business leads, so that he can follow up with them himself.
The greater the overlap, or commonality of experience, or among team members’ mental models, the greater the likelihood that team members will:
create new innovation for old problems.
engage in healthy conflict.
be able to cope with unexpected demands.
be able to avoid interpersonal conflict.
When a team consists of members who come from different functional areas, with different areas of expertise, different information, different priorities, and different perceptions of problems and opportunities, the ________ is exacerbated.
uneven communication problem
indirect speech acts effect
information dependence problem
saying is believing effect
A team that has a large representational gap has:
success in enticing other team members to adopt their position.
a majority of members who privately agree with the minority.
disagreements about how to approach a task and who should do what.
inconsistent views and mental models about the definitions of the team’s problem or task.
A team with a high adaptive capacity brings what capability to their organization?
Team’s capacity to assimilate new knowledge
Ability to change or shift their strategy in the face of upheaval
Team’s capacity to apply new information and knowledge
In regards to the common information effect, what is the main problem with an uneven distribution of information?
The collective intelligence between the partners can be unbalanced.
Certain pieces of information get more time, attention, and emphasis than alternative pieces of information.
Some team members are willing to share information with others, but some are not.
Certain group members can be uninterested in the discussion and not want to participate.
A situational example of a team putting knowledge to practice through knowledge adaptation is:
a manager discovers, by lots of personal research, that his department has created a new type of adhesive that is not sticky when wet but very sticky when dry. The manager challenges himself and his employees to improvise fixes to an employee’s broken bicycle with this product.
a manager challenges the use of a newly developed fixture at her departmental status meeting. This manager pushes the fixture design department to keep refining the design with new parameters in mind.
in order to shorten his team’s R&D phase, a manager visits the company archives and researches past formulas that led to unsuccessful results.
a manager finds out that their newest product is not doing well in the market. He pushes the team to take a new look at their product research, and make changes to the product based on the team expanding their knowledge of marketplace trends.
Functionally diverse teams are composed of people who have different information, knowledge, and expertise and must share and integrate it. ________ problem-solving is the art and science of sharing and using knowledge, and making inferences that no individual group member could have inferred.
Groups perform better than individuals on a wide range of demonstrable tasks. What is a key reason why groups outperform individuals faced with the same task?
Groups outperform individuals due to a process in which group members become more accurate during the group interaction.
Groups are much more overconfident than individuals, regardless of their actual accuracy.
Groups are more likely to neglect case-specific information and ignore base-rate information.
Groups are more likely to exacerbate some of the shortcomings displayed by individuals.
In terms of creating conditions that encourage ethical decision making in organizations, all of the following are valid EXCEPT:
rewarding people based upon their bottom line profitability.
having ethical leaders
eliminating conflicts of interest.
making people accountable for their behavior
The confirmation bias is best described as the tendency for people to:
put unwarranted confidence in their decisions.
want others to agree with them because of their need to be liked.
not want to act as a devil’s advocate in a group, even though it would help the group.
seek and consider evidence that supports their preferred hypothesis, and discount or ignore information that refutes their beliefs.
There are four key processes involved in the escalation of commitment cycle. Which of the following is NOT one of those processes?
All of the following are true about conformity EXCEPT:
conformity is greater when people value and admire their team.
conformity is greater when the rest of the group is unanimous.
conformity is greater when people have high social status in their team.
conformity is greater when people make difficult judgments.
There is a tendency for a person to look to the group to seek information on the reality of a situation. The more team members who hold a particular opinion, the more right an answer seems. This bias is best termed:
the need to be liked.
the need to be right.
The framing bias makes specific predictions about how people will behave when faced with a sure course of action versus a gamble. Which of the following best describes the effects of the framing bias?
People tend to be risk-averse when choosing among gains, but risk-seeking when choosing among losses.
People are risk-averse (i.e., preferring a sure thing) for both gains and losses.
People tend to be risk-seeking when choosing among gains, but risk-averse when choosing among losses.
People are risk-seeking (i.e., preferring a gamble) when choosing among gains and losses.
Because individuals who deviate from their team’s opinion are more harshly evaluated than those who conform to it, which of the following is a reason why team members are more likely to conform to the majority viewpoint?
The team member can express their opinion in a non-public forum.
The team member’s individual reward is independent from the group’s reward.
Team members anticipate future interactions with other group members.
The team member is confident in his or her own opinion.
Groupthink occurs when team members place the goal of ________ above all other decision priorities.
Marilyn, Bob, and Carl all believe a certain defendant is probably guilty and should be sentenced. Individually their recommendations for a sentence are 3, 5, and 7 years. When they meet as a group however, they recommend 10 years. This change and collective shift is called:
an escalation of commitment.
the Abilene paradox.
Key symptoms of groupthink take root and blossom in groups that succumb to the pressures of reaching unanimity. Which of the following is one of those symptoms?
There is a diversity of opinions within the group.
The group’s process of creating ideas and reaching decisions is balanced, and out-group member opinions are respected.
Members of the group regard themselves as invulnerable, morally correct, and exempt from organizational standards.
Group members constantly discuss their reservations about the group’s controversial viewpoint.
Group polarization is best described as the tendency for:
group discussion to intensify group opinion; producing more extreme judgment than might be obtained by pooling individuals’ views separately.
groups to ostracize members who do not agree with them.
group discussion to mitigate group opinion; producing less extreme judgment than might be obtained by pooling individuals’ views separately.
people in groups to follow the crowd, and, in some cases, engage in mob behavior.
An example of the overconfidence bias is:
a judge in a criminal court hears over 80 cases a day. The defendants whose cases are heard late in the day were given harsher sentences.
Joe makes a stock price prediction and believes that there is only a 5% chance that his estimate is wrong; overlooking recent articles about the bad financial health of the business.
Bill’s tendency to consider evidence that supports his position on illegal immigration, but disregards evidence that refutes his beliefs.
Carol and her team have been working on a new product for several years and one expensive prototype has become their main focus. When evaluating the choices for launch, the group judges the top prototype as the best one for launch over less expensive options.
All of the following can help minimize the escalation of commitment EXCEPT:
seeking external review.
recognizing and accepting sunk costs.
continuing to invest based upon how many resources have already been invested.
Research has found that instigating and upholding task-oriented conflicts in the decision-making process can be a strategy to counteract biased information seeking. One conflict-stimulating procedure involves assigning a counterargument role to a group member. When consensus on a particular decision solution has emerged, the contrary employee tries to identify all weaknesses inherent in it. The group must then react to this criticism, and see if the arguments put forth can be invalidated. This procedure is an example of what type of dissent?
Escalation of commitment
Devil’s advocate procedure
Leader behavior that is associated with too much concern for political ramifications, or the analysis of alternatives in terms of their political repercussions, are key determinants of:
the overconfidence bias.
the framing bias.
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