Chapter1 1. The instrument that evidences the borrower’s indebtedness and promise to repay is called a: mortgage. land contract. promissory note….

1. The instrument that evidences the borrower’s indebtedness and promise to repay is called a:
a. mortgage.
b. land contract.
c. promissory note.
d. trust deed.
2. Which one of the following items need not be stated on a mortgage note:
a. the amount of the debt.
b. the interest rate charged.
c. payment terms.
d. the name of the lender.
3. A note provision that permits the lender to declare the entire loan balance due and payable in the event of default is called:
a. an acceleration clause.
b. a waiver of rights clause.
c. a penalties clause.
d. a declaration of subservience clause.
4. Mortgages:
b. are subject to the statue of frauds.
c. are subordinate to deeds of trust.
5. Which of the following represents a pledge of two or more parcels of land to secure a single loan?
a. Purchase-money mortgage
b. Monoped mortgage
c. Deed of trust
d. Blanket mortgage
6. A second mortgage is an example of:
a. an executory lending agreement.
b. a junior mortgage.
c. a blanket lending arrangement.
d. structural dissonance in lending arrangements.
7. If there is no loan origination fee and no discount points, the face amount of a wrap-around mortgage:
a. will exceed the amount of loan funds disbursed.
b. will be less than the amount of loan funds disbursed.
c. will equal the amount of loan funds disbursed.
d. will bear no consistent relationship to the amount disbursed.
8. In most jurisdictions the relationship between mortgages and deeds of trust is:
a. mortgages provide greater lender security than do deeds of trust.
b. deeds of trust provide greater lender security than do mortgages.
c. mortgages and deeds of trust achieve approximately the same objective.
d. mortgages and deeds of trust are used for unrelated purposes.
1. The size of the annual debt service depends upon:
a. the amount of the loan.
b. the interest rate.
c. the amortization period.
d. all of the above.
2. A mortgage note which has a contract rate of interest of 12 percent per annum was sold, after two years, at a price to yield the buyer a 10 percent rate of return if the note is held until maturity. The note:
a. was sold at a discount (i.e., for less than the remaining principal balance).
b. was sold at a premium (i.e., for more than the remaining principal balance).
c. was sold at par (i.e., for exactly the remaining principal balance).
d. There is insufficient information to determine which of choices (a) through (c) is correct.
3. Shortly after the investor in the question immediately above buys the mortgage note, the remaining balance is paid off by the original borrower (that is, it is paid off before maturity). If there is no prepayment penalty, the early payment will:
a. increase the yield to the investor.
b. decrease the yield to the investor.
c. have no impact on the yield to the investor.
4. The annual debt service constant on a monthly payment, fully amortizing mortgage note is:
a. exactly twelve times the amount of the monthly constant.
b. slightly less than twelve times the amount of the monthly constant.
c. slightly more than twelve times the amount of the monthly constant.
d. not related to the monthly constant in a systematic manner.
5. Effective interest rates are:
a. increased by the charging of discount points.
c. unaffected by the charging of discount points.
d. may be increased or decreased by discount points, depending upon whether the points are currently deductible for income tax purposes.
6. If a borrower pays discount points or a loan origination fee, one consequence of paying the loan off early (where there is no prepayment penalty) is:
a. a decrease in the effective interest rate.
b. an increase in the effective interest rate.
c. no impact on effective interest.
d. an increase or a decrease in effective interest, depending on how soon in the amortization period the prepayment occurs.
7. The contract interest rate:
a. is the nominal rate.
b. is the effective rate when there are no front-end fees and no prepayment fees.
c. is the rate of interest stipulated in the promissory note.
d. all the above are true.
8. The real rate of interest on a fixed-rate loan:
a. is the same as the effective rate.
b. is reduced when inflation increases during the period of the loan.
c. is increased when inflation increases during the period of the loan.
d. is adjusted to reflect the impact of inflation during the period of the loan.
1. The initial tax basis may include:
a. legal fees.
b. commissions.
c. second mortgage note signed by purchaser.
2. Consideration is:
a. only the cash paid directly to the seller by the buyer.
b. the difference between the selling price and the adjusted basis.
c. all items of value given to the seller in exchange for the property.
d. none of the above.
3. The adjusted basis is:
a. purchase price minus all expenses incurred during the holding period.
b. purchase price less recovery allowances.
c. purchase price adjusted for capital improvements and cost recovery allowances.
d. purchase price minus all expenses, plus all income received during the holding period.
4. The major attractions of co-tenancy are:
a. its pride of personal ownership and freedom from personal income tax liability.
b. its ease of legal arrangements, and its status as a non-taxpaying entity.
c. its limited liability and its ease of management.
5. A major drawback of a corporation (other than a Subchapter-S, or Tax Option corporation) is:
a. corporations are not tax conduits.
b. shareholders have limited liability.
c. shareholders participate in management decisions.
6. Limited partnership arrangements alleviate which traditional problem associated with real estate investments?
a. High initial investment required
b. Low disaster threshold
c. Need for the specialized knowledge of the market
7. Potential disadvantages of the limited partnership include:
a. losses for all limited partners, without exception, are treated as passive in nature.
b. losses in excess of $25,000 in any one taxable year are treated as passive in nature.
c. losses are treated as passive in nature, if the partner’s gross income exceeds $125,000.
d. losses are treated as passive, as the partner’s gross income moves from $100,000 to $125,000.
8. Limited partnership arrangements alleviate which traditional problem associated with real estate investments?
a. Low tolerance for risk
b. High initial investment required
c. Need for portfolio liquidity
d. High taxes on salary and business income
9. Which is a key difference between tenancy in common and joint tenancy?
a. Tenancy in common carries right of survivorship.
b. Joint tenancy interests must be equal and undivided.
c. Tenancy in common interests must be equal but need not be undivided.
d. Joint tenancy interests are taxed as an association.
10. The excess accumulated earnings tax may be levied on:
a. tenancy in common real estate holders.
b. general partnerships.
c. corporations.
d. conduits.
11. In the absence of express agreement to the contrary, partners in a general partnership:
a. share profits and losses equally.
b. share profits and losses in proportion to their equity investment.
c. are liable for partnership obligations only to the extent of their investment in the partnership.
d. share liability for partnership obligations in the same ratio that they share profits and losses.
12. The allocation of the initial tax basis may be done by:
a. using the allocation estimated by the tax assessor.
b. writing the allocation into the contract.
c. using the allocation estimated by an independent appraiser.
13. Depreciation allowances affect:
a. income tax consequences.
b. net operating income.
c. before-tax cash flow.
14. Prepaid mortgage interest on loans to acquire investment property:
a. is deductible as interest expense in the year of prepayment.
b. must be amortized over the life of the mortgage.
c. may be deducted currently or amortized, at the taxpayer’s option.
d. may be deducted currently only if doing so does not “materially” distort taxable income.
15. The tax basis is adjusted to reflect:
a. depreciation allowances.
b. capital improvements.
c. partial dispositions.
16. A taxpayer’s adjusted tax basis in a property is:
a. its fair market value less the balance of outstanding mortgages.
b. the amount of the owner’s equity in the property.
c. primarily an accounting, rather than a tax concept.
17. An important aspect of the depreciation allowance is that:
a. it is an out of pocket cost of doing business, reducing both cash flow and taxable income.
b. the tax shelter it generates can never exceed the income from the property.
c. both (a) and (b) are true.
d. none of the above is true.
18. When a property is located in a registered historic district:
a. it is automatically considered a certified historic structure.
b. it is not necessarily considered a certified historic structure.
c. it is up to the property owner to decide if the property is of historic significance.
19. Prepaid mortgage interest on commercial property:
a. is deductible in the same pattern as construction-period interest.
b. with certain restrictions, is deductible in the year paid.
c. can never be deducted.
d. none of the above are true.
20. Tax credits:
a. reduce taxable income in the year the credit is earned.
b. reduce taxable income in the year the credit is recognized.
c. are direct offsets against income tax liability.
d. are available only to corporations and trusts.
21. Tax credits for rehabilitating historic structures:
a. is the same as that for rehabilitating other structures.
b. is twice that as for rehabilitating other structures.
c. requires that the structure be in a registered historic district.
d. are not subject to recapture rules.
22. Passive asset rules do not apply to:
a. limited partnership income and losses.
b. income and losses from property whose owner is actively engaged in a real estate trade or business.
c. income and losses from low-income housing.
d.losses that do not exceed $25,000 per annum.
23. Unless a “withholding certificate” is received, certain transactions involving foreign investors require that a portion of the proceeds be withheld and remitted to the IRS. The withholding requirement is imposed:
a. on sellers only.
b. on buyers only.
c. on U.S. citizens (or U.S. companies) only.
d. only when there is a taxable gain involved.

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